Interestingly, pdf.js displays this document very nicely for me.
Looks good for me too. Could you run http://mzl.la/pdfjs-test ? If "@font-face is supported/enabled" fails, please check the preferences -> content -> fonts -> advanced... -> allows pages to choose the fonts setting, or create a fresh profile.
Yes it could be related to a disabled "allows pages to choose the fonts setting".
The document is not rendered correctly. Some italics look very misaligned to me (see attached screenshot).
See the "p" and "ft"